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Library Information Interchange Standards

This section of the OII Standards and Specifications List provides information on standards used for the interchange of information between libraries. The 100+ standards listed in this section have been grouped under the following headings:

 Entry updated this month

Note: This section supplements details of the general-purpose data classification standards in the Data Classification Standards section of theOII Standards and Specifications List.

Standards for the interchange of library information have been prepared or advised by the following public bodies:

The EU Telematics for Libraries Programme, run by Directorate General XIII of the European Commission, manages a number of research and training projects throughout Europe. For more information contacthttp://www.echo.lu/libraries/en/libraries.html.

For a full assessment of some of the relationships between the standards mentioned in this report refer to the studies prepared as part of the EU Libraries Programme's EuropaGate project, which can be accessed electronically fromhttp://europagate.dtv.dk/reports.htm.

The EU Libraries Programme has supported EDI activities through its EDILIBE projects. EDILIBE and EDItEUR, the Pan-European Book Sector EDI Group, have developed a set of EDI implementation guidelines for the book sector, based on the conventions developed by EAN (International Article Numbering Association) which cover a series of EDIFACT Trade messages. These guidelines are being maintained by EDItEUR under the IMPRESS project of the Libraries Programme. See the OII EDI section for further information on EDI standards.



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ANSI Z39.50

Expanded name
Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification

Area covered
OSI compliant client/server searching of information databases

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ANSI and US National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
  • ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992 Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Open Systems Interconnection (revision and redesignation of ANSI Z39.50-1988)
  • ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995 Information retrieval (Z39.50): Application service definition and protocol specification (revision of ANSI Z39.50-1992, content identical to ISO 23950)
  • ISO 23950 Information and documentation -- Information retrieval (Z39.50) -- Application service definition and protocol specification

Characteristics/description
OSI applications-layer protocol for client/server oriented information retrieval queries of on-line library catalogues and other structured data sets. In many cases applications are run on top of a TCP/IP protocol suite.

The original 1988 standard was updated in 1992 to conform with the rules laid down in ISO 10162/10163. ANSI Z39.50 enhances the ISO rules and provides a superset of search options for use in OSI compliant applications.

Version 3 of the standard was approved by ANSI during 1995. As it implements the ISO 10162 amendments to provide scan and access control functionality and adds other functions required by US libraries it has been submitted to ISO for fast-track approval as ISO 23950.

Note: Version 3 of Z39.50 was discussed and developed by the ZIG group.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
An ATS-1 profile specifies the use of BIB-1 (attribute set) when searching bibliographic databases. Z39.50 also forms the basis for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) in the US. The Library of Congress is the official Z39.50 Maintenance Agency, and maintains a worldwide Register of Implementors for Z39.50, many of whom are European.

CHEST, the UK Combined Higher Education Software Team has selected Z39.50-compliant software to connect 200 UK higher education institutes to the UK Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC) and the British Education Index (BEI).

The OPAC Network in Europe (ONE) is an EC funded project which will provide library users with better ways to access Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs) and other national catalogues, and which will stimulate and facilitate interworking between libraries in Europe. Some of the participants already offer operational services based on Z39.50 and/or ISO-SR.

SOCKER is a project within the EU Libraries Programme whose objective is primarily to implement the origin (client) part of the SR (Z39.50 V2) protocol for network based searching of library catalogues and other databases. On the server side the ARCA project will allow existing OPACs to act as SR targets.

The EC funded Project Paragon aims to provide library users with a single gateway to three major sound archive catalogues via Netscape and the World Wide Web. The common interface is based an implementation of the ISO-SR standard and its American equivalent, Z39.50, designed to meet the special needs of the users of sound and media archives.

The EC funded EuropaGate project provides a Z39.50 gateway for WWW and e-mail users via the Internet.

Further details available from:
NISO, National Bureau of Standards, Administration 101, Library E-106, Gaitherberg, MD 20899, U.S.A. (NISO@nbsenh.bitnet)

On-line information on current updates and implementations is provided at http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency. Other useful sources of information on Z39.50 can be found at http://ds.internic.net/z3950/z3950.htmlhttp://www.nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/VI/5/op/udtop3.htm andhttp://linnea.helsinki.fi/z3950/z3950pr.html.

A discussion of the role of Z39.50 can be found in Chapter 3 of the EuropaGate Report. A discussion of the relationship between Z39.50 and ISO-SR can be found in Chapter 5 of the EuropaGate Report.

The European Forum for Implementors of Library Applications (EFILA) is working with IFOBS and the Z39.50 Implementors Group (ZIG) to develop profiles for the use of Z39.50 within Europe. EFILA is discussing how the Z39.50 protocol can support international character sets.

The Z39.50 Implementors Group (ZIG) is an international group with participants from all over the world (Europe, Australia, etc.). The group is, however, dominated by American implementors implementing Z39.50 in library systems and other information retrieval systems. The group generally meets once a year in Europe. The ZIG meetings for 1998 will be held in Orlando (January 21-23) and, possibly, Library of Congress, Washington (June 1-3).

Withdrawal of ISO 10162 and 10163 on publication of ISO/IEC 23950
OII Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Activity Report, August 1997


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Bibliographic Character Sets

Area covered
Character sets specifically designed for interchanging multi-lingual or non-Latin bibliographic data without using transliteration

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC4 WG1
  • ISO 5426:1983 Extension of the Latin alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 5426-2:1996 Information and documentation -- Extension of the Latin alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange -- Part 2: Latin characters used in minor European languages and obsolete typography
  • ISO 5427:1984 Extension of the Cyrillic alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 5428:1984 Greek alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 6438:1983 Documentation -- African coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 6630:1986 Documentation -- Bibliographic control characters
  • ISO 6861:1996 Information and documentation -- Cyrillic alphabet coded character sets for historic Slavonic languages and European non-Slavonic languages written in a Cyrillic script, for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 6862:1996 Information and documentation -- Mathematical coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 8957:1996 Information and documentation -- Hebrew alphabet coded character sets for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 10585:1996 Information and documentation -- Armenian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 10586:1996 Information and documentation -- Georgian alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 10754:1996 Information and documentation -- Extension of the Cyrillic alphabet coded character set for non-Slavic languages for bibliographic information interchange
  • ISO 11822:1996 Information and documentation -- Extension of the Arabic alphabet coded character set for bibliographic information interchange

Characteristics/description
Character sets used for including non-Latin text in bibliographies.

Note: Many of these standards have been replaced by the more general purpose standards listed in the separate section onCharacter Sets.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
New standards are migrating towards the use of ISO 10646 as the preferred general purpose character set for information interchange. This comprehensive set will reduce the need for applications to switch from set to set as is the case with the above standards.

The PROLIB/CoBRA CHASE project has developed software to convert from 7 and 8 bit character sets to ISO 10646 level 3. Level 3 is the acceptable level to accommodate the needs of libraries for character representation in bibliographic records. ANSI Z39.50 version 3 allows for International Strings which are compatible with the use of ISO 10646.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies

Publication of ISO 10586
OII Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Actvity Report, September 1997


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Bibliographies

Area covered
Bibliographic description and references

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC9
  • ISO 690:1987 Documentation -- Bibliographic references -- Content, form and structure
  • ISO/FDIS 690-2 Information and documentation -- Bibliographic references -- Electronic documents or parts thereof
  • ISO 832:1994 Information and documentation -- Bibliographic description and references -- Rules for the abbreviation of bibliographic terms
  • ISO 7154:1983 Documentation -- Bibliographic filing principles
  • ISO/TR 8393:1985 Documentation -- ISO bibliographic filing rules -- Exemplification of bibliographic filing principles in a model set of rules

Characteristics/description
ISO 690 provides rules for recording information on titles, responsibility, editors, issue details, publication data, extent, ISBN, etc. A draft has been issued for a second part that covers the capture of data relating to electronic documents. This extends the existing list to include information related to medium, edition, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, date of update/revision, date of citation, chapter/part titles, numeration within host, availability and access restrictions.

ISO 832 defines rules that can be used to abbreviate bibliographic references.

Methods for filing bibliographic entries are defined in ISO 7154. ISO Technical Report 8393 shows how these rules can be applied in a typical situation related to ISO standards.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
Unknown

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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Document Presentation Standards

Area covered
The structure of documents and related bibliographic data

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC9
  • ISO 8:1977 Documentation -- Presentation of periodicals
  • ISO 18:1981 Documentation -- Contents list of periodicals
  • ISO 214:1976 Documentation -- Abstracts for publications and documentation
  • ISO 215:1986 Documentation -- Presentation of contributions to periodicals and other serials
  • ISO 1086:1991 Information and documentation -- Title leaves of books
  • ISO 2145:1978 Documentation -- Numbering of divisions and subdivisions in written documents
  • ISO 2384:1977 Documentation -- Presentation of translations
  • ISO 5122:1979 Documentation -- Abstract sheets in serial publications
  • ISO 5966:1982 Documentation -- Presentation of scientific and technical reports
  • ISO 6357:1985 Documentation -- Spine titles on books and other publications
  • ISO 7144:1986 Documentation -- Presentation of theses and similar documents
  • ISO 7220:1996 Information and documentation -- Presentation of catalogues of standards
  • ISO 7275:1985 Documentation -- Presentation of title information of series

Characteristics/description
While many of these standards are short 1 or 2 page efforts which state the obvious there are a few gems of information to be found in some of the more recent publications. Much of this work has, however, been obsoleted by the adoption of the presentation independent electronic document markup rules provided in ISO 12083 -- Electronic manuscript preparation and markup

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
Many of these standards are unknown outside the ISO world.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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GEDI

Expanded name
Group on Electronic Data Interchange Agreements

Area covered
Network delivery of electronic documents, initially concentrating on scan-on-demand material

Sponsoring body and standard details

Characteristics/description
A number of library-related organisations from around the world (Europe, US, Australia) formed GEDI in 1990 to define a framework of formal and de-facto standards for electronic formats and protocols in the electronic exchange of the full texts of documents. In October 1991, the first version of the GEDI agreements was released. The second version was published in July 1995.

The agreements concentrate on two elements:

  1. the definition of an Electronic Document Format
  2. the description of the interchange mechanism.

The GEDI format is defined as consisting of descriptive header information followed by the document image. In the first version, the agreements contained a limited set of descriptors to describe a TIFF image and specified the exclusive use of FTAM for the interchange mechanism. The second version has a extended set of descriptors to allow better mapping between GEDI and ISO ILL data elements, and offers the option to use either FTAM or FTP for the interchange. The document is still specified as a multi-page TIFF image.

In the third version, which is currently under development and is expected to be released in the summer of 1997, other document types are included (including PDFJPEGPostScript), FTAM is removed and MIME-compliant electronic mail is added as an interchange mechanism. The third version has been submitted as a work item for ISO TC46/SC4/WG4.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
The GEDI agreements are being widely used in Europe, the US and Australia supporting national and international document delivery services in the library world.

The use of the GEDI agreements in a multi-national European context has been demonstrated in the EC funded EDIL project (http://www.echo.lu/libraries/en/projects/edil.html).

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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Interlibrary Loans

Area covered
Electronic messages related to interlibrary loans

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC4
  • ISO 10160:1997 Information and documentation -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Interlibrary Loan Application Service Definition
  • ISO 10161 Information and documentation -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Interlibrary Loan Application Protocol Specification

Characteristics/description
ISO 10160 provides specifications for messages relating to interlibrary loan (ILL) requests, request forwarding, forwarding notification, shipment, ILL answer, conditional reply, cancellation, cancellation reply, receipt, recall, return, check-in, overdue, renewal, renew answer, lost notification, damage notification, status query, status-or-error report and expiry. A 1994 amendment covers ILL support for electronic data delivery.

ISO 10161 provides an ASN.1 specification for the provision of services conforming to ISO 10160. Alternatively the messages are treated as EDIFACT messages.

Internationally standardized profiles for the use of these standards are defined in the OSI-ISP ALD2n Library and Documentation Interlibrary Loan Store-and-Forward Protocols.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
The National Library of Canada (NLC) has been designated by ISO as the Registration Authority for ISO 10161. A register for the ILL Protocol standards, which includes a register of object identifiers for ISO 10161, can be found at http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/iso/ill/. Details of identifiers currently assigned to ILL Protocol Implementors can be found at http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/iso/ill/isoill5.htm.

In 1995, an implementers' group was established (IPIG), which was expanded to include various European organisations in 1996.

The EC sponsored DALI project has developed and evaluated a service for multimedia document delivery in a distributed environment, usingISO-ILL. The service provides intelligent user support within a library-based infrastructure. Another EC sponsored research project that implements ILL is UNIVERSE.

Further details available from:
IFILA, ISO or local national standards bodies.

The European Commission sponsored the ION OSI pilot/demonstration project between library networks in Europe for interlending services. The project interconnected three sites (UK, Netherlands and France) with three front-end processors (on three different UNIX platforms), based on subsets of the ILL protocol and of the ISO-SR protocol (for two of the sites) and using research networks and X.25.

Another project sponsored by the European Commission was AIDA (Alternatives for International Document Availability), which demonstrated the use of ILL. For details contact http://www.cib.unibo.it/aida/.



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ISO-SR

Area covered
Electronic search and retrieve commands for searching bibliographic databases using Open System Interconnection

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC4
  • ISO 8777:1993 Information and documentation -- Commands for interactive text searching
  • ISO 10162:1993 Information and documentation -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Search and Retrieve Application Service Definition
  • ISO 10163 Information and documentation -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Search and Retrieve Application Protocol Specification

Characteristics/description
ISO standards that define commands and OSI services related to searching and retrieving data stored in bibliographic databases. (See also entry for related US standard ANSI Z39.50.)

ISO 8777 defines a total of 30 search and retrieve commands, together with 8 special symbols that can be used to qualify commands. The keywords defined include ALL, BACK, BASE, DEFINE, DELETE, FIND, FORWARD, HELP, HOLD, INFO, PRINT, RELATE, REC (count records), REV (print search history), REVIEW, SAVE, SCAN, SDI (specify a particular SAVE update), SHOW, STOP and TO. These may be qualified by the commands AND, EQ, GE, GT, LE, LT, NE, NOT and OR, and the symbols ( ) ; " # ? ! and %. In addition the standard suggests field labels for abstracts (AB), author affiliation (AF), accession number (AN), author name (AU), classification code (CC), controlled term (CT), descriptor (DE), document type (DT), computer entry date (ED), journal number (JN), journal title (JT), language (LA), ISBN (SB), source (SO), ISSN (SS), subject (SU), title (TI) and uncontrolled term (UT).

ISO 10162 described how a search service conforming to the rules specified for the OSI Application Layer defined in ISO 7498 can be set up using the ACSE protocols defined in ISO 8649. The standard defines search and replace (SR) services for libraries, information utilities and union catalogue centres using a client/server model. A state transition diagram is provided to illustrate the steps involved. The service provides a small set of commands that allow a query originator to initialise, search, present, delete query result sets, release and abort operations at a target location.

ISO 10163 provided an ASN.1 specification for the provision of services conforming to ISO 10162. A number of draft amendments have been published, relating to the scanning of ordered lists, sorting, proximity searching, record segmentation and the provision of facilities for access control, resource control, concurrent operations and suspend/resume.

International standard profiles for the use of ISO 10162/3 have been defined in the OSI-ISP ALD1n Library and Documentation Search and Retrieve specifications.

Note: TC46/SC4 has requested the withdrawal of ISO 10162 and ISO 10163 following publication of ISO 23950 in 1997.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
ISO 10162 is used as a subset of the ANSI Z39.50 service protocol.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies.

A description of the use of ISO-SR can be found in Chapter 4 of the EuropaGate Report.

Software for use of ISO-SR has been developed as part of the European Community sponsored SOCKER project, details of which can be found at http://mediator.uni-c.dk/socker/

Other EC projects using ISO-SR include the OPAC Network in Europe (ONE) and Access to Remote CAtalogues (ARCA).

Withdrawal of ISO 10162 and 10163
OII Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Actvity Report, August 1997


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ISO 12083

Expanded name
Electronic manuscript preparation and markup

Area covered
Standardized set of SGML markup tags for producing documents for publication in the United States and countries with similar production requirements

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC4, ANSI and Association of American Publishers (AAP)
  • ISO 12083:1994 Information and documentation -- Electronic manuscript preparation and markup

Characteristics/description
International issue of American National Standard for Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup, which was derived from the 1983 Standard for Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup developed by the AAP.

The markup tags provided by this rather dated set of standardized markup tags are rather cryptic. For example, <fwd> is used to identify a foreword, while <aid> marks the start of an article identifier. The Document Type Definition (DTD) for books and articles is broken down into front matter elements, body elements, appendix elements and back matter elements, though different combinations of elements are provided in each category for the two DTDs. The DTD for serials does not allow for the inclusion of appendices but does allow for multiple parts in a serial.

Attributes are defined separately from the corresponding elements. Separate entity sets are provided for Dutch, French, German, Spanish, Greek and Cyrillic, but these repeat many of the definitions provided in the standard ISO character sets, which can also be referenced from the DTD.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
Used by a number of American publishers, and European ones with US connections.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies

Scope of proposed revision to standard
ISO 12083 - Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup: TC46/SC4 meeting, Washington, 6th December 1997


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Library Statistics

Area covered
Recording and transmission of library statistics

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC8
  • ISO 2146:1988 Documentation -- Directories of libraries, archives, information and documentation centres, and their data bases
  • ISO 2789:1991 Information and documentation -- International library statistics
  • ISO 9230:1991 Information and documentation -- Determination of price indexes for books and serials purchased by libraries
  • ISO 9707:1991 Information and documentation -- Statistics on the production and distribution of books, newspapers, periodicals and electronic publications
  • ISO 10324:1997 Information and documentation -- Holdings statements -- Summary level
  • ISO FDIS 11620 Information and documentation -- Library performance indicators

Characteristics/description
ISO 2146 provides names for over 400 fields that can be used to record information about libraries and their contents in databases.

ISO 2789 covers how to count libraries, librarians, books, cassettes, discs, etc, for inclusion in statistics relating to library provision.

ISO 9230 identifies 25 classifications of books that are used by UNESCO to determine pricing classifications, and provides rules for calculating price indices for books, serials, etc.

ISO 9707 identifies classifications of books, etc, for which statistics should be maintained on details of selling points, languages, numbers sold, circulations, electronic publications, micropublications, publishers and printing houses.

ISO 10324 allows stock levels to be recorded for books and serials.

Draft International Standard 11620 will provide a standardized method for the electronic interchange of library performance indicators.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
The European Commission has sponsored research into the development and use of libary statistics through the PROLIB/PI study, and theDECIDEDECIMALEQLIPSEMINSTREL projects, together with the concerted action known as CAMILE.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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MARC

Expanded name
Machine Readable Cataloguing

Area covered
Exchange of bibliographic information

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC4 and library representatives from organizations such as IFLALibrary of CongressBritish LibraryNational Library of Canada, etc.
  • ISO 1001:1986 File structure and labelling of magnetic tape for information interchange
  • ISO 2709:1996 Documentation -- Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape
  • The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (1994). Ottawa: Canadian Library Association; London: Library Association Publishing; Chicago: American Library Association.
  • ISBD(G) : General International Standard Bibliographic Description; (1992) prepared by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing.
  • The UKMARC Manual: a cataloguer's guide to the bibliographic format (1996)
  • The UKMARC exchange record format (1996)
  • UNIMARC Manual (1994) IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Programme, British Library Bibliographic Services.
  • USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data, Including Guidelines for Content Designation (1994), ISBN 0-8444-0809-3

Characteristics/description
The Library of Congress was responsible for developing the original MARC format during 1965-66. This led to a pilot project, known as MARC I, which investigated the feasibility of producing catalogue data in machine-readable form. Similar work was in progress in the United Kingdom where the Council of the British National Bibliography set up the BNB MARC Project to examine the use of machine-readable data in producing the printed British National Bibliography (BNB). In 1968 the MARC II project began as an Anglo-American effort to develop a standard communications format.

Despite cooperation there emerged two versions, UKMARC and USMARC, which reflected the national cataloguing practices and requirements of BNB and the Library of Congress. Consequently, the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) were published in 1968 in both British and North American editions.

The revision of AACR was undertaken by the British Library, the Library of Congress and other bodies in the UK and North America. The objectives were to reconcile the British and North American texts of 1968, to incorporate amendments and to provide for international interest in AACR. The publication of the second edition (AACR2) in 1978 was a landmark in standardizing procedures for the description of books and other items and for the construction of headings and references.

Throughout the 1980s there was a growing international commitment to networks and shared cataloguing based on AACR2 which by then had been adopted by a number of non-English speaking countries. Although the basic concepts of AACR2 did not change, three sets of rule revisions were required to take account of international usage, new library materials and rapid technological change. This process was consolidated with the publication of a 1988 revision of AACR2. In 1994 a set of amendments, known as Amendments 1993, was published comprising clarifications and slight changes to existing rules, which the British Library has since applied to BNB MARC records.

The UKMARC format is used also to convey Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) records for forthcoming publications.

Since the early 1970s an extended family of more than 50 MARC formats has grown up. Inevitably, differences in data content mean that editing is required before records can be exchanged. One solution to the problem of incompatibility was to create an international MARC format, UNIMARC. This format originally covered monographs and serials, but was extended in 1987 to include non-book materials. The format is maintained and developed under the supervision of the Permanent UNIMARC Committee.

ISO 2709 defines the tape exchange format that MARC records conform to. ISO 2709 files start with a fixed length record label followed by variable length records containing a directory map, a record identifier, MARC reserved fields and MARC bibliographic fields. The ISO 4873IS2 and IS3 codes are used as field and record terminators respectively.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
MARC is widely accepted as the standard format for the interchange of bibliographic records. It is used by 69% of European library systems. Unfortunately, at present, there are still different versions for different countries, e.g. LCMARC for the Library of Congress and UKMARC for the British Library.

The OCLC database, which uses USMARC, is used by more than 20,000 libraries in 61 countries. The OCLC database currently holds over 30 million bibliographic records in over 400 languages. This database is the result of the cooperative cataloguing activity of OCLC participating libraries, the Library of Congress, the British Library, the National Library of Medicine, the National Library of Canada, and the National Library of Australia. Over 34,000 records are added each week. Dates range from BC to the present. These bibliographic records for monographs, serials, AV media, maps, archives and manuscripts, sound recordings, scores and computer files include such information asDewey and Library of Congress classification as well as all fields required by AACR2. Library of Congress subject headings are included when appropriate and for medicine and related subjects medical subject headings are also given. There were 421 OCLC users in Europe.

UKMARC records are not observably created outside the UK. In 1986 the Book Trade Electronic Data Interchange Standards Committee (BEDIS) was established in the U.K. to consider standards for bibliographic exchange. Their report, published in 1990, recommended the adoption of the MARC format to meet the requirements of publishers and booksellers for exchanging product and trading information relating to books. The principal reason for choosing MARC was its widespread use by library suppliers and by libraries both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Since then this work has been extended into Europe through the EDItEUR and EDILIBE projects.

A 1995 UK workshop, Towards a Common MARC Format, identified a need for the UK to move towards adopting an extended form of USMARC for use in the UK. Work has already started on this in conjunction with the relevant bodies in the US and Canada, but it is felt that the final changeover will not take place till 1999. Work is ongoing on the harmonisation of USMARC.

Recently UNIMARC has been chosen by many EU libraries as the exchange format of choice, and as the format for the CERL (Consortium of European Research Libraries) database of Hand Printed Books, merging data from different EU libraries.

Other EC sponsored programmes related to MARC include USEMARCONCoBRA-UNIMARC and CoBRA- CHASE.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies

Much of the information in this section has been taken from the British Library's Setting the Record Straight: A guide to the MARC format(November 1995, updated June 1996), which provides a brief, non-technical guide to the MARC format.

For further information on USMARC refer to the Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office site athttp://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/. For further information on UKMARC refer to the British Library National Bilbiographic Service (NBS) UKMARC Web Page at http://www.bl.uk/services/bsds/nbs/marc/.

The Library of Congress maintains the USMARC formats for Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification, and Community Information data for the USMARC user community. The MARC Advisory Committee includes the American Library Association's (ALA) Machine-Readable Bibliographic Information (MARBI) committee, US national libraries, the National Library of Canada and the National Library of Australia, the large bibliographic networks such as OCLC and RLIN, library associations such as the Music Library Association and Special Libraries Association, and library system vendors. The Library of Congress maintains an electronic discussion forum for the formats that has around 800 subscribers, opening discussion to all interested librarians.

The Canadian Committee on MARC (CCM) acts in an advisory capacity to the National Library of Canada on matters relating to Canadian MARC formats. The Committee, which was established in 1976, is formed of two representatives from each of the Canadian Library Association (CLA), the Association pour l'avancement des sciences et techniques de la documentation (ASTED) and the National Library of Canada as well as one member from ISM, one member representing the Bureau of Canadian Archivists and an observer from the Library of Congress. The Committee meets twice a year, in conjunction with the annual conferences of CLA and ASTED.

A detailed description of the way in which ISO 2709 records are structured and used can be found in Chapter 2 of the EUORPAGATE Report.



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Object Identification

Area covered
Standards for identifying books, serials, audiovisual material and electronic records

Sponsoring body and standard details

It should be noted that ISRC, ISMN, ISAN and ISWC are part of the Common Information System (CIS) initiated by the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) and the International Federation of Phonograph Industries (IFPI), for addressing electronic copyright management requirements.

Characteristics/description
Internationally approved standards for the formal identification of objects that can be found in libraries. Most people have used ISBN and ISSN numbers to identify books and serials that they require. The recently added ISRN numbering scheme for technical reports is less well known, though likely to be increasingly used in future bibliographic references.

For printed and electronic music copyright ISMNs are used, while individual recordings of music can be identified using the ISRC coding scheme.

Electronic information can be identified using the naming conventions defined in ISO 9070.

Each of the standards listed above is administered by a Registration Authority that keeps master records of the owners of sets of records. Assignment of individual numbers within each set is normally the responsibility of the originating company.

During 1995 a consortium consisting of the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, IEEE and Elsevier Science published a specification for uniquely identifying individual papers in books and serials. The Publisher Item Identifier (PII) is a 17 character identifier which starts with either an ISSN number and year of publication (preceded by the letter S) or an ISBN number (preceded by the letter B). Individual papers within the publication are assigned a unique 5 digit number. The final character is a modulo 11 check digit (with X for 10) derived by multiplying each number (excluding the initial letter) by a prime and dividing the result by 11.

The original version of ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1991 established two levels of coding, a unique code for the identification of a serial title called the Serial Item Identifier and a unique code for individual contributions within a serial - the Serial Contribution Identifier. The standard has recently been significantly revised to make it more suitable for electronic use, including in the EDI and Internet (Uniform Resource Names) environments. The main changes are the introduction of a Code Structure Identifier (CSI) for different uses, a Derivative Part Identifier (DPI) to identify fragments other than articles (e.g. tables of contents, index) and a Media Format Identifier (MFI) to indicate physical format. The DPI and MFI may be used in all SICI types (CSIs). However, the use of SICI remains confined to serials (a book-based version is expected shortly). Nor is SICI suitable for use prior to publication if the article is not assigned to a specific journal.

To allow component parts of books to be identified in a way similar to SICI, the UK Book Industry Communication group has developed a proposal called A Standard Identifier for Book Items and Contributions, which is referred to as the BIC identifier (BICI).

ISWC will provide a link between the existing ISRC used by the recording industry to identify individual audio and video recordings, and the ISAN, used to identify audiovisual works. It will also provide a bridge to an expanded database of Interested Party Identifiers (IPI) and International Standard Agreement Codes (ISAC). An ISWC number will consist of an eight digit number preceded by a T and followed by a check digit, e.g. ISWC T-34524680-1. The number itself will not contain any information about the composition or its composer/performer.

Digital Object Identifiers can be used to identify any type of digital information. The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) system will connect customers, via the Internet or any future networks, to the current owner of a digital object. It provides a tool for facilitating management of copyright ownership issues and promoting digital commerce and scholarly research. It is a two-part identifier consisting of a registrant's prefix, issued to the owner of the content by a central DOI Agency, and an item ID. The item ID can be any existing object identification scheme, including ISBNs, SICI, BICI and PII identifiers. A distributed DOI Directory provides the link between the identifier and the location of the document.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
Most items that are copyrighted have to have a formally registered identifier.

The developers of the PII scheme will ensure that all papers that have been assigned a unique PII will have the number printed on each page published after 1st January 1996. In addition to the STI group of publishers, the PII has been adopted by Springer and other primary publishers as well as by their secondary databases including Chemical Abstracts, EMBase, INSPEC and ADONIS.

ISWC standardisation is well advanced, with trials currently being conducted in Australia, Scandinavia and Ireland. UK trials will begin shortly. The ISWC work is being done by the International Numbering Working Group of the BIEM/CISAC Information Systems Steering Committee after extensive consultations with copyright societies and copyright owners in many different territories.

The ISRC already links to existing physical packages of recordings by way of Uniform Product Code/European Article Number (UPC/EAN) product bar-codes.

SICI (original version) is currently widely used, mainly at the item (i.e. issue) level, by subscription agents and libraries. It is an important element in EDI messaging and is used in many library systems. The identifier is represented in a bar code form using the EAN128 scheme.

In 1996 the Association of American Publishers (AAP) established an initiative, known as the Digital Object Identifier, to devise an identification system specifically for copyright management of electronic information. The identifier would be embedded in the digital information product and users would enter it to submit a query to a central DOI database. The query would be routed to the publisher who would return a full record that would include both bibliographic and copyright status information. In September 1996, Bowker and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) won the contract to develop the DOI system and act as the management agency. There is as yet no agreement on the numbering system to be used.

A group of publishers has begun implementing DOIs in a prototype, with a demonstration of the DOI System planned for the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 1997.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies

For details of the Publisher Item Identifier scheme contact Elsevier Science at http://www.elsevier.nl/inca/homepage/about/pii/.

For details of the Digital Object Identifiers System contact http://www.doi.org.

For an analysis of various identification schemes, see the work of the EC-sponsored BIBLINK project in this area (http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/BIBLINK/wp2/).

An overview of current developments in this field can be found in June/July edition of OII Spectrum. The Book Industry Communication (BIC) and EDItEUR jointly published a briefing paper on Unique Identifiers in September 1996 (ISBN 1 873671 16 4).

A useful overview of current developments in the field of object identifiers can be found athttp://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/aao00/DouglasArmati/Speeches/ICSU_UNESCO_Speech.htm.

A description of the CISAC/IFPI CIS scheme and other issues concerning electronic copyright management is provided in the OII report onWorkshop on Technical Mechanisms for IPR Management in the Information Society.

A European Copyright User Platform (ECUP), a copyright awareness campaign for librarians, has been established by the European Bureau of Library, Information and Documentation Associations (EBLIDA) with support from the EU Libraries Programme. Further information is available at http://www.kaapeli.fi/~eblida/ecup/.

First meeting of ISO TC46/SC9 ISAN Working Group
OII Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Activity Report, April 1997
Book Industry Communication Identifiers (BICI)
OII Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Activity Report, July 1997


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OSI-ISP ALD1n

Expanded name
OSI-ISP ALD1n Library and Documentation Search and Retrieve

Area covered
Application of ISO 10163 for searching bibliographic databases coded using the MARC format

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • EFILA and ISO TC46/SC4
  • ISO/DISP 12065-1 Information and documentation - Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - International Standardized Profiles ALD1n -- Search and Retrieve
    • Part 1: Specification of ACSE, presentation and session protocols for use by ALD profiles
    • Part 2: Search and Retrieve generic
    • Part 3: ALD11 - Search and Retrieve using ACSE

Characteristics/description
Part 1 provides an overview of the relationships between the various profiles.

Part 2 will specify constraints to be applied when using the OSI Search and Retrieve Application Protocol Specification defined in ISO 10163-1:1993 to search through bibliographic information stored in MARC format. It requires that applications support the use of Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) for querying. Optionally search and retrieval using the FIND command defined in ISO 8777:1993 Information and documentation -- Commands for interactive text searching is permitted.

Part 3 will identify how the minimal OSI (mOSI) profile for a Common Upper Layer Requirements (CULR) defined in ISO/IEC ISP 11188-3 and a connection oriented ISO 8649 Association Control Service Element (ACSE), as defined in ISO/IEC ISP 11188-1, can be used to search bibliographic databases.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
As these draft profiles have only recently been published it is too early to evaluate their use.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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OSI-ISP ALD2n

Expanded name
OSI-ISP ALD2n Library and Documentation Interlibrary Loan Store-and-Forward Protocols

Area covered
Transmission of messages related to interlibrary loans

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • EWOS EG LIB and ISO TC46/SC4
  • ISO/DISP 12066 Information and documentation - Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) - International Standardized Profiles ALD2n - Interlibrary loan
    • Part 1: Specification of store-and-forward protocols for use by ALD profiles
    • Part 2: Interlibrary loan generic
    • Part 3: ALD21 - Interlibrary loan using ACSE
    • Part 4: ALD22 - Interlibrary loan using store-and-forward

Characteristics/description
Part 1 provides an overview of the rules for creating the various profiles.

Part 2 lays down the general principles that apply to interlibrary loan messages.

Part 3 identifies how the minimal OSI (mOSI) profile for a Common Upper Layer Requirements (CULR) defined in ISO/IEC DISP 11188-3and a connection oriented ISO 8649 Association Control Service Element (ACSE) service, as defined in ISO/IEC ISP 11188-1, can be used for interlibrary loan messages.

Part 4 (ALD22) specifies how library applications should use the messaging facilities define in ISO 10021 Information technology -- Text Communication -- Message-Oriented Text Interchange Systems (MOTIS) (the ITU X.400 protocol) to exchange messages related to interlibrary loans. It requires that applications provide a delivery report service conforming to ISO/IEC 10021-7:1990 Information technology -- Text Communication -- Message-Oriented Text Interchange Systems (MOTIS) -- Part 7: Interpersonal Messaging System.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
As these draft profiles have only recently been published it is too early to evaluate their use.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies



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Transliteration

Area covered
Representation of non-Latin languages in electronic and other Latin-based bibliographic references

Sponsoring body and standard details

  • ISO TC46/SC2
  • ISO 9:1995 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages
  • ISO 233:1984 Documentation -- Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters
  • ISO 233-2:1993 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters -- Part 2: Arabic language -- Simplified transliteration
  • ISO 259:1984 Documentation -- Transliteration of Hebrew characters into Latin characters
  • ISO 259-2:1994 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Hebrew characters into Latin characters -- Part 2: Simplified transliteration
  • ISO 843:1997 International system for the transliteration of Greek characters into Latin characters
  • ISO 3602:1989 Documentation -- Romanization of Japanese (kana script)
  • ISO 7098:1991 Information and documentation -- Romanization of Chinese
  • ISO 9984:1996 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Georgian characters into Latin characters
  • ISO 9985:1996 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Armenian characters into Latin characters
  • ISO/FDIS 11940 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Thai
  • ISO/TR 11941:1996 Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Korean script into Latin characters

Characteristics/description
Character sets used to convert non-Latin texts into a form that can be stored on Latin-based computer systems.

Note: Most of these standards have an equivalent standard for representing the characters without transliteration, as described under the heading Bibliographic Character Sets.

Usage (Market segment and penetration)
Most countries have their own standards which are used in preference to the internationally approved ones.

Note: Applications are migrating towards the use of ISO 10646 as the preferred general purpose character set for information interchange. This comprehensive character set will reduce the need to perform transliteration.

Further details available from:
ISO or local national standards bodies

For further details on problems relating to the transliteration of Greek refer to the results of the European Commission sponsored HELEN project that can be found at http://alcyone.cc.uch.gr/~kosmas/Helen/helen_docs.html



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This information set on OII standards is maintained by Martin Bryan of The SGML Centre and Man-Sze Li of IC Focus on behalf of European Commission DGXIII/E.

File last updated: January 1998

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