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Strategic Study on New Opportunities for Publishers in the Information Services Market

Table of Contents

  1. Methodology
  2. Abstract
  3. Global Findings
  4. Selected comparisons with USA and Japan
  5. Conclusions
  6. New Opportunities in Electronic Publishing
  7. Perspective for the Year 2000
  8. Different Roles of Key Players
  9. Recommendations to the European Commission and Member States
  10. Recommendations to Publishers

1. Methodology

The strategic study was undertaken in 1992 for the European Commission by Consulting Trust in close co-operation with IEPRC to provide a strategic framework for the EC and European publishers for electronic publishing.

Though the study is also based on the results of past studies on similar subjects, the main research was field research including interviews with more than 250 experts in the main European countries, the USA and Japan. Key players in publishing, electronics, printing and other related businesses were involved, either in individual interviews or in workshops.

Consulting Trust then drew conclusions from a world-wide perspective and developed a more general strategic framework to take account of the key industries involved in electronic publishing.

Interim results and hypotheses were made available to the EC and to publishers in order to receive feedback and further direction for the study as it progressed.

This report represents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations as well as a view of expected developments.

It is important to note that - mainly due to the enormous lack of awareness in the traditional publishing industry and to the diverse approaches within the electronics industry - Consulting Trust had to come to their own conclusions, some of which are not completely shared by all industry participants.

The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not engage the Commission of the European Communities in any way.

Author of the Study:

Consulting Trust GmbH
Vogelsangweg 26
D-40883 Ratingen
Fax (49)(0)2102-896055 

2. Abstract

Though by the year 2000 most publications will still be in printed form, traditional print products are losing their leading role in several areas and no longer represent the mark of identification of an intellectually active person. The penetration of personal computers in Europe has reached some 25% in offices (USA 35%) and 15% in homes (USA 20%) and is growing rapidly. Rough estimates show a market potential for electronic publishing (In this study "electronic publishing" refers to any non-print media material which can be electronically delivered, sorted and /or manipulate by the user") in Europe in the order of magnitude of some 12.000 million ECU in the year 2000 and a high potential for growth until then.

In contrast, most publishers are largely unaware of the dramatic changes in the information industry, of new opportunities and the strategic implications of new media. There is significant uncertainty about technologies, markets and economics and very little vision of the future of the information industry.

Traditional publishers feel strong of their long historical background in publishing skills, ownership of content and their established relationships with authors and readers But only few publishers are aware of the degree to which these strengths will remain crucial in new media publishing.

Whereas Japan is strong in hardware and the USA have an additional strength in application software, Europe's strength can be seen in the richness of content for information products. Whilst this gives European publishers attractive, opportunities for electronic publishing, it is also a threat to the European publishers that their contents, mainly based on text, will not be adequate for multimedia applications. In addition, most global players in movie and music production are non-European. ("Multimedia" in this study means publishing text, graphics, images, sound, video etc.. on one medium")

Since publishing markets are base on languages, electronic publications in the English language find larger markets and give a higher and quicker return on investment. This gives an advantage to publishers in the US and makes the necessary learning phase longer, more costly and risky for non-English-speaking publishers.

Traditional publishers who do not exploit opportunities in electronic publishing at the right time and with the appropriate strategy will lose this business to third parties. The same applies even more to booksellers and especially printers: if they do not change their cultures and strategies radically and quickly, they will play only a minor role or none at all in the new businesses.

Most players in publishing, electronics and communications have not yet realised the fact that their industries are merging together, forming the new information industry of the future with completely new rules for success.

Though the USA and Japan appear to be slightly ahead in electronic publishing, in general publishers in the USA and Japan face the same problems and opportunities as their European counterparts. The differences between USA, Japan and Europe are in their competitive environments. There are plenty of new opportunities for publishers in electronic information businesses but also for players outside the traditional publishing arena, who are expected to play a much stronger role than most traditional publishers have yet realised.

Though most publishers express demand in terms of market figures and profit calculations for electronic publishing, the real issues are more strategic, such as defining the business and one's own role, the new basis of competition, a new set of competitors etc. The main strategic issues are still market identification and creation.

Corporate publishing("Corporate publishing" in this study means the non-profit publishing of commercial companies (manuals, technical documentation, in-house training etc.. excluding advertising")and business-oriented applications will be the drivers for electronic and multimedia publishing. The pure consumer markets will follow.

The greater the multimedia content of the electronic publishing product the less relevant is the ownership of textual content; often the traditional publisher owns only the text.

Publishers will have to apply "single-source multiple-media publishing",("multiple-media" in this study means publishing on different media such as paper, disk, CD-ROM, on-line") just as the electronics suppliers will have to market multimedia-ready hardware products.

As the success of electronic publishing depends on awareness, willingness and ability on behalf of both producers and users, and as the enabling technologies are becoming available, publishers should get on the experience curve in time to establish profitable competitive positions in the new businesses.

Since different segments of publishing are affected differently by the changing environment, there is no generic for success. Each publisher must find his or her own way m electronic publishing. But there are some common rules for limiting risks.

In a Perspective 2000 the traditionally strong position of European publishers with regard to content ownership is expected to be weakened dramatically in terms of electronic publishing, mainly due to the fact that multimedia products require content not yet available or substantially controlled by other key players.

The main and possibly remaining strength of European publishers will be their established market and customer base. It should be the primary strategic goal of any traditional publisher to protect this position and not to give way to third parties offering electronic products to their customers.

As in addition to publishers other content suppliers will establish themselves as major players in the information industry, co-marketing and co-branding between traditional publishers and newcomers from outside will become necessary. The strengths of video game publishers should not be overlooked in this context.

Against this background of rapid changes to the basis of competition favouring non-European players in nearly all aspects of electronic multimedia publishing, significant support from the European Commission is necessary to help the European publishing industry develop awareness, willingness and ability in electronic publishing. This becomes strategically even more important in the light of the Japanese and the USA governments' commitments to electronics and multimedia publishing and related industries. The most important recommendations are: support for the European information industry as a whole and the provision of balanced support and funding between the electronics and the publishing industries; the development of a EC long-term strategic plan for electronic publishing; the exploitation of electronic publishing products and services by the EC itself; and the initiation of a commercial 'European Multimedia College' in co-operation with the industries concerned.

3. Global Findings

The timing of the study is regarded as appropriate: Publishers feel that owing to maturing new technologies there are new opportunities emerging. European publishers welcome the involvement of the European Commission very much, mainly for two reasons publishers welcome the involvement of the European Commission very much, y for two reasons: they would like the attention and support of the EC more balanced between electronics industries and publishers; and they are not sure about their future strategic role in electronic publishing, especially in relation to other key players based in the USA or Japan. Most publishers are sceptical of the potential opportunities in electronic publishing and consider this new way of publishing more as a threat or irrelevant to their business than as an opportunity. There is a significant uncertainty about technologies, markets and economics and about the strategic implications of new media. There applies even more to the potential users.

The publishing industry feels relatively strong because of their long historical background in publishing skills, ownership in content and their established relationships with authors and readers. But most publishers are not aware of the degree to which these strengths will be useful in new media publishing. As most traditional print based publishing is sound in economic terms, many publishers see no need to endanger their position by investing in uncertain electronic information products and many tend to take a waiting position or to leave this business to third parties altogether. But there is an increasing awareness that the traditional print product is losing its guiding function in several areas and is no longer the exclusive attribute of an intellectually active person.

Many traditional publishers have difficulties in imagining and creating electronic products not based on text.

Most complaints from publishers refer to missing standards, confusing diversity of hardware platforms and inefficient content ownership protection. Especially in Europe publishers are not involved effectively in influencing standardisation and hardware developments.

Most European and American printers have not yet found their role in electronic publishing. Most players in publishing, electronic and networking have not yet realised the that these industries are rapidly merging, forming the new information industry. The key players in the electronics industry have diverse views about their own role in electronic publishing.

4. Selected Comparisons with USA and Japan

In general publisher in the USA and Japan face the same problems and opportunities as their European counterparts . As in electronic publishing the underlying technologies and market needs are more or less global, in terms of technologies and market barriers the differences between USA, Japan and Europe are marginal. But there are some significant differences in the competitive environment which make electronic publishing opportunities in the USA and Japan look different from Europe.



5. Conclusions

6. New Opportunities in Electronic Publishing

There is hardly any area of publishing not offering any opportunity for new media publishing. But the potential varies, of course, from segment to segment and each publisher has to make his/her own decision and strategy. Whereas the STM (scientific, technical, medical) publishing sector will be very much affected in the near future by electronic publishing, the fiction sector will be far less affected. Some publishers such as in STM and parts of the reference book sectors have to enter electronic publishing. Others can decide to enter on their own or to leave it to third parties (or preferably enter into a joint venture). Still others will either have much time to decide, or as in the case of parts of the fiction sector will never enter electronic publishing on their own, leaving it to the film and video business. Publishers owning interesting image material in addition to text may even decide to let the image part go electronic alone, for image bank usage for example.

Market Potential

European Publishing Market Segments 1992 and 2000 and their Potential for Electronic Publishing in The Year 2000

Traditional Print Publishing Electronic Publishing 2000
Segment Market 1992 Mill ECU Market 2000 Mill ECU Potential Range for Electronic Publishing Market (Average) Mill ECU
Books 18.500 27.200 8-18% 3.480
Magazines 22.000 32.500 5-15% 3.250
Newspapers 25.500 37.000 5-15% 3.250
Corporate 10.000 15.000 10-25% 2.625
Total 75.500 111.7000 6.5%-15% 12.130

European Book Market Segments 1992 and 2000 and their Potential for Electronic Publishing in the Year 2000

Traditional Print Publishing Electronic Publishing 2000
Segment Market 1992 Mill ECU Market 2000 Mill ECU Potential Range for Electronic Publishing Market (Average) Mill ECU
Fiction 4.000 6.000 1-10% 300
Children 2.800 4.000 15-25% 800
Education 2.200 3.200 10-20% 500
Reference 2.600 3.800 15-25% 750
STM 1.700 2.500 20-30% 625
Legal 700 1.000 15-25% 175
Other 4.500 6.600 1-10% 330
Total 18.500 27.200 8-18% 3.480
(Source : Consulting Trust)

Assuming a 5% increase in traditional publishing per year, the estimated potential for electronic publishing in the year 2000 is in the order of magnitude of some 12.000 Mill ECU. The figures show that even under very conservative assumptions there are publishing opportunities which the traditional publishers should not ignore.

Since the corporate publishing market for children's products are large segments with particular electronic publishing potential, their characteristics are described in more detail.

Corporate and Business Publishing Markets

Corporate and business publishing is one of the largest publishing sectors of all. Its specific characteristics are:

The production of corporate information products aims at single-source multi-media and multilingual publications, including such sources as :

The professional and business markets for information, including education and training, differ greatly from the consumer market:

The corporate and business information therefore appear to be less risky than the consumer markets. Starting electronic publishing by concentrating on corporate markets could give some publishers an excellent entry and highly valuable experience badly needed later for consumer markets. In addition corporate customers are often new willing to co-finance new electronic publishing products in the case of new developments or in-house applications. In addition, the professional markets often drive consumer markets, such as the computer and software markets.


Within corporate and business publishing the segment "travel" appears to be one to which the publishers concerned should pay special attention. The travel and tourist industry is one of the largest information providers and the benefits of electronic media are evident. As there is also a well-established publishing industry, including reference material, serving the travel and tourist markets, this sector is expected to be one of the driving forces within electronic publishing. It is one of the very few market segments where corporate publishing and the publishing industry meet. Both parties should be able to exploit and benefit from this opportunity.

Children's Publishing Market

These markets may become of special interest to those publishers serving them today with print products. There are two reasons : firstly, children are very much attracted by all kinds of electronic products and show relatively low expectation regarding the quality of visual display. Secondly, the video games industry is expected to create a significant world-wide installed base of compact disc readers. The market for video technologies involved are tailored to the specific needs of interactive games, publishers in the children's publishing market may find ways to exploit the fast-growing global hardware base (which may soon come close to the number of installed personal computers) in co-operation with the video games suppliers. Though the video games suppliers are expected to concentrate on their core business, publishers should not ignore this industry's potential for products beyond games.

And last, but not least: today's children are tomorrow's computer literates.

7. Perspective for the Year 2000 ("Within this study different scenarios were developed and examined. Here the most likely perspective for the year 2000 is described)

The acceptance of electronic publishing will increase dramatically as a computer and video game literate generation matures. Barriers to acceptance of electronic equipment will decline fast because of user-friendly technologies and products, available at permanently rising cost/benefits ratios.

As the enabling technologies are available, electronic publishing and multimedia publishing will grow quickly and will open completely new business either besides or including print media publishing.

In addition growing environmental pressure on paper consumption will force certain segments of print based publishing to switch to electronic publishing.

Awareness and willingness among users will grow owing to the increasing use of telephone services, TV/VCR, video games, ATMs, computers etc. The willingness to buy electronic publishing products will depend on age, perception and successful experiences with earlier products. The consumer's willingness will be strongly influenced by clear benefits in information, education or entertainment and in cost savings.

Publishers will show higher awareness because of their growing experience with electronic data processing and desk top publishing. More and more publishers will gain the ability to provide, create and bundle attractive content and to distribute it to the user at appropriate cost. But, in addition to publishers, other content suppliers such as travel companies, automotive, banks will establish themselves as major players in the information industry. Co-marketing and co-branding will become a widely accepted means of marketing electronic information products as well as new kinds of user-attracting advertising incorporated in such products.

Depending on the various publishing sectors, the majority of products will first be based on text and graphics, then more and more products including sound will appear; later, most products will also contain animation and images, first still images, later full motion, and then virtual reality.

The expected market development path will be as follows :

  1. The first major existing and profitable business in electronic publishing will be video games and business-to-business on-line services.
  2. The next major applications will be computer (PC) based in corporate and office environments. In corporate applications especially, a rapid increase in networking will take place, in-house and with third parties.
  3. At the same time the use of computers at home will increase rapidly.
  4. Only the appearance of global products with real benefits to the consumer at low cost and the introduction of simple and cheap reading devices will enable producers to exploit the installed base of TV sets in homes. As long as such products are not available, the majority of TV set based systems will first be applied in vertical markets (corporate and professional).
  5. Networking between households will definitely take place later than in the industrial and professional area.
  6. The reading infrastructure in corporate and professional markets will be dominated by computer based systems and telephony. At home the infrastructure will be a mixture of TV, computers, video game and Hi-fi equipment, increasingly connected to telephone and cable TV networks.

The successful publishers will apply "single-source multiple-media publishing" the same way as electronics suppliers will only market multimedia-ready hardware products.

Though a high growth in off-line information publishing and services will take place, in the long run a combination of off-line and on-line services will become usual. The level of quality offered by off-line products will affect the relatively poor quality of today's on-line products positively. The pricing structure of on-line services will develop into more subscription-oriented schemes.

A convergence of technologies in computer, TV, telephone and video will happen, as well as dramatic convergence of electronics, publishing and networking industries, forming a new kind of information industry. Global mergers and strategic alliances will be seen across all sectors of the information industry.

The development of the corporate and professional markets for electronic publishing products and multimedia will justify further investment by the electronics industry, independent of the development of consumer markets. The convergence in technologies and in demand in both the professional and the consumer markets will let more electronics companies enter the highly competitive consumer markets.

Initially, for economic reasons, major electronic publishing products will be marketed globally. In addition minor electronic information products serving national markets will be successfully, showing high penetration in vertical markets owing to the high added value or, on the other hand, wide, but limited penetration in a horizontal market with high appeal but lower value added.

The traditional book shop will be only one among a large variety of distribution channels for electronic publishing products. Other channels will emerge and will be more successful.

In the near future the most serious bottleneck in the development of electronic information products will be the lack of attractive content, mainly due to a shortage of appropriate skills and experience.

The electronics industry will experience co-operation at both global and national levels. Standardisation in hardware and software will be critical to the electronics industry in making electronic publishing happen. Some players in this industry will engage in publishing themselves, others will enter into co-operation with publishers without becoming direct competitors to them.

As electronic publishing products, especially multimedia products, become an accepted part of the world of available media, product technologies will gradually become less important, whilst production technologies and economies of scale will gain in importance. As electronic publishing matures the base of competition will become the quality of the content itself, the value added through related services, and effective distribution.

Electronic publishing will evolve from being technology-driven to a demand-driven in professional applications, and supply-driven in consumer markets. Electronic publishing will find its way out of the hands of programmers and will become a strong and growing segment of the information industry, but only partly related to traditional publishing houses. Many of the first entrepreneurial companies in this business will be bought by larger traditional publishers, by computer companies or other players.

Most of the electronic publishing sectors will soon become national or even regional, similar to the development of print-based publishing. The growing individualisation in demand, markets, and products and services will, as in all industries, contribute to this development.

Europe will not gain a leading role in hardware or computer software. Nor will the strong position of European publishers in terms of content in traditional publishing be matched in electronic publishing. Their position will be significantly weaker, mainly because multimedia products require content either not available or substantially controlled by other sex players. The major threat to the European print publishers in terms of electronic publishing is not expected from overseas publishers but rather from outsiders never having been in traditional print publishing.

The main and often only remaining strength of European publishers will be their established customer base. It will be the primary strategic goal of any successful traditional publisher to protect this customer base and not to give room to third parties offering attractive electronic publishing products to their customers.

In addition the successful publishers will

8. Different Roles of Key Players in Electronic Publishing

Various industries will merge together soon, forming a new global information industry. The expected roles of the key players in the context of electronic publishing are described below.


Most of the publishers will continue their traditional publishing businesses. Many will act as content providers to third parties in electronic publishing. Depending on their publishing sector and their target markets publishers will exploit their blacklist for electronic information products. Publishers in "special interest" markets such as STM and the like, and in reference materials, will produce electronic products to protect their markets. Publishers in horizontal consumer markets will be only slow adopters of the new technologies. Many publishers will enter joint ventures with other key players in electronic publishing.

Book stores

Most book stores will continue their traditional business. In electronic information products they will face serious competition from other distribution channels such as direct marketing, mail order, computer companies, consumer electronics retailers, video outlets and specialised retailers. Though booksellers will experiment with the distribution of electronic products they will, in the end, be only one alternative outlet among others.


European and USA based printers in particular will continue to concentrate on paper print. They will be the big losers in electronic publishing, because it is expected that new intermediates will enter between publishers and printers. Though this is mainly due to data preparation services for electronic publishing, it will also affect the traditional print-based relationship between publishers and printers: in terms of "single-source multi-media-publishing", output on paper will be regarded as one medium amongst others. In order to play a significant role in electronic publishing the printers have to change their attitude and become marketing-oriented service providers for data preparation for all kinds of media besides paper. This change has to come soon in order to enable involvement in electronic publishing in time; this is unlikely to be achieved by many.


Television stations and studios will be among the major suppliers of content and talents for multimedia applications. They will be interesting joint venture partners for traditional publishers in creating, producing and distributing multimedia products. Television companies will in addition enter value-added services either on their own or by distributing them through their networks, increasingly applying interactivity and supported by a growing network of cable TV and by growing use of satellite communication.


Telecommunication authorities and companies will face networking becoming a commodity (like utilities). They will therefore be in search of new businesses in value added services related to telephone and mobile communications. In on-line publishing they will become service providers for publishers as well as competitors.


The industry is expected to play a major role as content provider and creator of multimedia material. Though globally concentrated in the USA there will be efforts to decentralise operations into Europe and Asia. The industry will take the opportunity to grow beyond its traditional business by applying all kinds of new delivery technologies addressing professionals markets as well as consumer markets.

Industrial corporations

Many kinds of industrial companies will become major users of electronic multimedia products as well as suppliers of information products. In education, training and corporate publishing and communication there will be a vast variety of multimedia applications. At the same time companies in for instance financing, travel, automotive, hardware and software will recognise the value of information owned by them as well as the benefits of new electronic delivery technologies. This will not only apply to in-house applications but also to external markets. Corporate communication and publishing in a broader sense will be one of the strongest driving forces in multimedia publishing.

Hardware manufacturers

This industry is facing a continuation of fast development of new technologies together with declining margins and profits. Electronic multimedia publishing and communication is one of the most important future areas of investment world-wide.

Multimedia and networking are expected to become what mainframe and personal computer businesses were to them in the past. Because of the lack of content for new delivery devices and because of expected higher margins many electronics manufacturers will try to enter the content business. They will experience the markedly different characteristics of this business and will have to define their relationship with publishers. Others will act as partners to the publishing industry in product development, production and distribution, including the bundling of software and hardware products. The industry will increase efforts to reach common standards on a global level, recognising that this will be a prerequisite for the success of multimedia publishing. Acknowledging the fact that technologies in computing, telephony and television will merge, more computer companies will enter the highly competitive consumer markets.

Software developers

Global players in this industry are expected to make multimedia one of the most promising businesses and to broaden their publishing scope into areas other than computer program software, sometimes in close co-operation with publishers. Smaller software companies on a national level will be one of the fastest driving forces for multimedia and the development of products in the near future. Because of the lack of publishing and marketing skills they will, in the long run, either enter into close co-operation with major electronic publishers or will be bought by them.

Video game suppliers

Though this industry, strongly dominated by Japanese companies on a world-wide scale, has proven to be the most profitable off-line electronic publishing business, it is not recognised by traditional print publishers as "publishing". However, this industry will gain importance for publishers both as competitors and co-operation partners. The penetration of reading devices in households (Japan 45%, USA 35%, Europe 15%) is higher and faster-growing than home computers. The game suppliers will broaden their scope of products beyond video games, exploiting their global marketing power especially in children's markets. On the other hand, their huge and fast growing world-wide customer base will provide an interesting platform for other CD-based publications, especially for traditional publishers aiming at the same target group.


While publishers, electronics companies and other related corporations will by nature develop into electronic and multimedia publishing, a completely new kind of competitors will also appear - information brokers and repackages taking advantage of the huge storage capacity and the high speed of electronic delivery. They will package relevant information from different sources and bundle it to the specific needs of special user groups or applications. Their approach will be to design and distribute integrated specialised information products in close co-operation with other key players in the arena.

9. Recommendations to the European Commission and Member States

  1. Stimulate away-from-the-market alliances between the electronics industry and the publishing industry through specific support and funding programmes building on the work started in the IMPACT programmes:
  2. In consultation with publishers, printers, software suppliers and hardware companies, establish a "European Electronic Publishing Strategy Group" within the EC and through this group develop a ten-year strategic plan for electronic publishing development taking account of European issues and the principle of subsidiarity :
  3. Initiate steps, in addition to action already taken, to ensure that the EC, European Governments and other European public bodies exploit electronic publishing products and services in their customer-contractor relationships to fulfil their communication needs better, and use such public purchasing to speed up the development and competitiveness of European electronic publishing :
  4. To improve European publishers' international competitiveness, initiate the founding of a 'European Multimedia College' to provide training and education support to publishers. The College should provide channels for technology transfer and stimulate awareness and ability among publishers. Such an institution should be self-financing through support from publishers, hardware and software suppliers, and communications companies :
  5. The EC should encourage national governments to include instruction in and use of-new media products and services in all educational curricula, thus creating a "demand society for the future" in Europe comparable with that existing in the United States and Japan :
  6. Continue to support the EC's Legal Advisory Board (LAB) in its work on international intellectual property rights issues, but ensure that this work is related to the real needs of publishers:
  7. Reinforce the application of existing standards (rather than creating new ones) by identifying appropriate standards, using them and requiring conformance with them in dealings with the EC. In addition, facilitate the representation of European publishers on the relevant international standardisation bodies :
  8. The Commission should continue to act with vigour to stimulate the creation of an open, competitively-tariffed and integrated pan-European telecommunications infrastructure :
  9. Establish a programme and call for proposal aimed at developing a core of European printers - working in partnership with European publishers and electronics companies which can provide electronic publishing services (e.g. new media product development, digitising, storage, data conversion, electronic components manufacturing utilising printing technology etc.):
  10. Give to funding projects which support co-operation between publishers, software and hardware companies, telecommunications companies, and distribution channels for products development. This action should develop infrastructure and create market demand :
  11. Encourage viable pan-European electronic publishing products and tools development by funding collaboration among European publishers (e.g. common cultural and educational electronic publishing products):
  12. Encourage and fund the transfer of ideas and products from the United States, Japan and the Pacific Rim into Europe :
  13. Target and fund technology and know-how transfer from corporate publishing to conventional publishing

10. Recommendations to Publishers for a successful entry strategy for electronic publishing

1. Preparation for market entry

2. Develop expertise, skills and alliances :

3. Develop a strategic policy for content and technology :

4. Treat electronic publishing as a separate new business enterprise :

5. Develop a comprehensive policy on intellectual property and copyright :

6. Follow a low risk path for market entry into electronic publishing :

7. Separate the electronic publishing business from conventional publishing but ensure synergy and harmonisation between the two businesses :

8. Recognise the complexity of multimedia products and their management but minimise the demand on the customer :

9. Develop a coherent philosophy at the main Board level and sustain it :

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