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The recommendations to the European Council in December 1993, "Europe and the Global Information Society", and the communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, "Europe's way to the Information Society. An Action Plan" (COM(94)347 final), emphasise that widespread acceptance and use of the services offered by new technologies must be secured by preparing Europeans for the advent of the information society. In the important task of

To achieve this to best effect, regional and local initiatives will be encouraged. The report warns of the risk of creating a two-tier society consisting of the "information rich" and the "information poor", in which only a part of the population has access to, and is comfortable using the new technology.

In Europe, awareness of the opportunities offered by electronic information is still lower than in the US. The US information market is more mature and the user community more sophisticated. In many US organisations, there is a shift towards direct use of online services by end-users, partly stimulated by the take-off of publicly accessible information services (notably via the Internet) which are increasing awareness of the potential applications and benefits of electronic information.

In the area of awareness, user support and training within IMPACT, valuable initial steps have been taken through the creation of the network of National Awareness Partners (NAPs) throughout the European Union as well as training actions in less favoured regions. These actions form a good basis on which to build further, in particular in order to reach SMEs and educational institutions.

NAP activities steadily gathered momentum during 1993 and their effectiveness was analysed in collaboration with the NAPs at the beginning of 1994. In agreement with the independent mid-term evaluation of IMPACT, the findings emphasised the need to expand the network in both geographical coverage and additional expertise in order to increase its overall effect. In August 1994, the number of organisations was increased from 17 to 29, including for the first time NAPs based in 5 EFTA countries.

In terms of training, actions launched in 1993-1994 focused on the training of trainers, information specialists and intermediaries, as well as teachers in universities and other higher education institutions. In line with the Commission proposals for the new education and training programmes, Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci, 1995 actions will continue to stimulate universities on a transnational basis. In addition, for the first time, they will address managers and staff of SMEs directly.

Close collaboration will be sought with other Commission departments involved in electronic information services like Eur-OP (Office for Official Publications) with its commercial host Eurobases. Cooperation will also be fostered with existing networks such as VALUE Relay Centres, BC-Net, Euro Info Centres and UETPs for the COMETT programme, whose activities are considered to be complementary to those of the IMPACT NAP network.


The general political orientation of IMPACT towards the creation of an information society suggests that the work in 1995 should be concentrated in three main action areas:


The activities described below will be based on the experiences of the preceding years but also take into account the policy and technology developments which have taken place in the course of 1994.

3.1. Creation and management of an awareness network

3.1.1. Awareness campaigns based on a network of national partners.

After the extension from 17 to 29 organisations in mid 1994 the network of NAPs is now fully operational in the 17 countries of the EEA. The expected further increase of the NAP activity level in 1995 is reflected by a substantial budget increase compared with 1994. The change from an activity based support scheme to individual subsidy contracts for all organisations in mid 1994 has allowed them to allocate more resources to the specific NAP tasks. These contracts will be renewed in January 1995 for a further period of one year. Based on individual workplans the NAPs will conduct national awareness campaigns towards the foreseen target groups (SMEs, libraries, universities). Co-ordination and exchange of experiences between the various NAPs will be ensured via electronic mail and by organising regular meetings in Luxembourg and in the Member States.

The Central Support Team (CST) will continue to play a co-ordinating and stimulating role. Its relative weight in the exercise, however, will diminish. The central support will be managed through the prolongation of the existing PROSERV contract.

Some further organisations in the EU have expressed their interest to become members of the network. Their integration could only be envisaged if additional funds are made available.

Initial steps will be taken to prepare the NAPs for their future role as information resource centres for the Information Society in the framework of a follow-up programme to IMPACT.

3.1.2. Awareness material

A distinction has to be made between the awareness material which is used for distribution in large quantities and the awareness material for demonstration purposes.

The current awareness material includes posters, leaflets, brochures, videos and diskettes for distribution by the NAPs. Most of the material is available in all EU languages. Some of the material is of general use, while some was produced individually for the NAPs in order to help them to build up their image as part of the network. The general awareness material is distributed free, the more specialised material is sold on a cost covering basis. The latter will give the NAPs the possibility to recover the costs of distributing the material.

The awareness material for demonstration purposes includes a multi-media station which is available at exhibitions on specific request. All this material will be further developed and updated in close consultation with the NAPs.

The production of the printed material will be handled as far as possible through a framework contract of EUR-OP with a variety of printers.

3.1.3. Multimedia Awareness tool

The stand-alone workstation TUTOR is an awareness tool which demonstrates the advantages of using electronic information services without the need for installing telecommunication lines. It shows the various forms of electronic media (CD-ROM, diskette, online session) and can be used for awareness and training seminars. The content was translated into all EU languages and the NAPs received some financial support in order to have a dedicated installation. It is now a fixed part of their awareness campaigns. The arrival of new technologies like ISDN and multimedia have made it necessary to bring TUTOR up to the latest state-of-the-art. The project IMAGINE (ISDN-based Multimedia Awareness tool, Generating Informed New End-users) was launched in August 1994 by an open call for tenders and is expected to be completed in autumn 1995. It is expected that IMAGINE will play an important role in the awareness activities of a follow-up programme to IMPACT, by introducing the concept of electronic information as a strategic resource to SMEs and providing the basic training on this.

3.1.4. Directories of the information market

Several directories with particular relevance for the European information market will be continued in 1995.

The I'M Guide, inventory of European information services in electronic form (on-line, CD-ROM, gateways, etc.), will be kept up to date. Besidesmore than 5.000 products, the I'M Guide also contains their producers, providers and a list of brokers.

The distribution of the information will be done on-line via ECHO and via interested commercial hosts. In addition the I'M Guide will be made available on CD-ROM with a Windows interface and with the possibility to obtain the latest update automatically from the on-line database. This product will be distributed by the NAPs against payment of the production costs. The list of brokers will also be published separately as BROKERSGUIDE. The information from the I'M Guide will not only help users but also create business opportunities for commercial operators.

The private sector will be encouraged to develop value-added products using information from the I'M Guide. The collection of the data for the I'M Guide will be done through a continuation of the maintenance contract with E.I.I.A. Data from Central and Eastern Europe will be included, if the necessary financial support can be provided from the Copernicus programme.

Another inventory, I'M Forum, contains about 1.500 persons and organisations with specific knowledge in the area of the electronic information services market. This will help the Commission to identify appropriate contractors (e.g. for strategic information initiatives), and it will help the private sector to find partners in other countries or for strategic alliances. The possibility to be included in I'M Forum will be further facilitated by providing an entry form on-line via Internet. The directory will be updated under the previously mentioned PROSERV contract with the support of the NAPs.

3.1.5. Participation in exhibitions

The NAPs will continue to be present at exhibitions of national or regional interest. Some major exhibitions (e.g. Frankfurt Book Fair, IOLIM/London, INFOBASE/Frankfurt, IDT/Paris, etc.) will be attended on a joint Commission stand involving besides ECHO the Office for Official Publications of the EU (EUR-OP), EUROSTAT and other DGs on specific occasions. General awareness material and NAP specific documentation will be distributed on request to the interested public at these events. Demonstrations of the WWW server and multilingual ECHO databases such as TED, EURODICAUTOM and I'M Guide will be given. Parallel information sessions will be organised in order to inform about the latest status of IMPACT.

In order to cooperate more closely with Central & Eastern Europe in the area of the information market it is foreseen to be present also at some major exhibitions (e.g. Euroinfo/Warsaw, East/West Online/ Moscow, DAT '95/Budapest) in those countries. In addition, the attention of American users should be drawn to European information services by being present at a major U.S. exhibition.

3.2. Improving access to EU information

3.2.1. Information about Commission initiatives

In autumn 1994 a World Wide Web (WWW) server for information-market related information was created on Internet. The services include information on the latest Commission initiatives in this field including delivery of full text documents, discussion fora and support for partner searching for joint projects. The WWW server will be further developed in 1995. Other programmes of relevance for the information market (e.g. 4th Framework Programme for RTD including Information Engineering, Libraries, Language Engineering) will have the possibility to communicate with their target groups via the WWW server.

The WWW server is currently operated under the service bureau contract for ECHO. It is intended to launch an open call for tenders at the beginning of 1995 in order to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand for information from the WWW server and to ensure that the relevant information previously provided by ECHO can be linked to this server from 1996 onwards.

Some EU information will also continue to be offered via the national Videotex systems especially in those countries where the service is quite successful (e.g. France, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland). The information pages will be offered in close cooperation with the NAPs.

3.2.2. European information services

In addition to the documents on the global information society there are a number of databases emanating from the work of the Commission or from other European organisations which are of interest for the specialised and general public in the same context.

The Bangemann report mentions two pilot project areas (Research networks, Electronic Tendering) where useful support will be provided through the infrastructure of ECHO, the European Commission Host Organisation. The Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) databases are an essential tool for the research community and the TED database will play an important role in the pilot phase of the SIMAP (Systèmes d'informations sur les marchés publics) project of DG XV. Other ECHO databases are in the areas of user guidance and the language industry.

The databases which are currently loaded on ECHO involve several Commission departments (DG X, DG XII, DG XIII/D, DG XXIII, Translation Services (SDT), EUR-OP, Secretariat General (SG)) and Community and other international organisations (European University Institute, European Foundation for Working and Living Conditions, UNESCO). A new database which will be hosted on ECHO during an introductory phase is IDEA, the Interinstitutional Directory of European Administrations.

Measures in various directions will be undertaken in order to increase the accessibility and user-friendliness of the information services offered through the WWW server and ECHO. Connections will be provided through all types of networks (including Internet) and major efforts will be undertaken to develop graphical user interfaces for the most important databases on ECHO. The addresses of new ECHO clients will be passed on with their consent to commercial operators via the relevant industry organisations (EUSIDIC, EIIA). Together with the addresses which are collected from the NAP activities this constitutes an important pool of potential clients for commercial operators.

3.2.3. IMPACT Central Office

Besides the provision of electronic EU information services to a wide target audience, it is also intended to give human support to interested people. The planned services include:

3.3 Training of trainers, intermediaries and end-users

Whereas training actions launched in 1992-93 focused on the specific skills needed in Europe concerning efficient provision and utilisation of electronic information services (the information industry itself), actions carried out during 1994 focused on stimulating universities and other educational establishments to include training on electronic information provision into their normal curricula. As a kick-off project on an experimental basis, funds were allocated to National Awareness Partners (NAPs) in the Less Favoured Regions (LFRs) in order to conduct training courses for university teachers, based on material already developed in Commission and national initiatives.

The NAPs in the LFRs have performed a number of activities aimed at increasing the awareness at the national level about the importance of this, and seminars/courses for university teachers have also been conducted for selected universities. Further, in cooperation with general Community education and training programmes, notably the COMETT-programme operated by TFHRETY (Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training and Youth), similar courses have been conducted in 10 European countries in the European Economic Area.

Actions in 1995 will continue the stimulation of universities on a transnational basis and will, further and for the first time, seek to address managers and staff of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) directly. In close cooperation with the NAPs, a group of related European universities will, as a kick-off project on an experimental basis, develop a module on electronic information provision and implement this into their normal curricula in the coming academic year.

As a pilot project, the first step towards creating an infrastructure for "life long training" for SMEs will be taken. Realising that for efficient utilisation of electronic information as a strategic resource at SMEs it is necessary to involve the professional associations of SMEs in the training process, two professional associations will receive appropriate training.

The objective of the action is that, after the appropriate training, the associations can act as strategic information centres for their members, especially concerning information provision, technology application and technology transfer. To achieve this, it is necessary to bring together the experience, skills and knowledge of three parties: the associations, who know the problems of SMEs, university centres, who know the problems related to technology application and transfer, and the NAPs, who know how to utilise electronic information in relation to these tasks.

Finally, and since IMPACT comes to an end in 1995, a workshop will be organised. The objective of the workshop is to evaluate the experience gained through the IMPACT 2 kick-off actions in training, with a view to analysing how future training actions can best be performed, in line with the intentions of the White Paper, IRDAC recommendations and the intentions in SOCRATES and Leonardo da Vinci.


The awareness activities will complement national initiatives and will help to raise the general awareness about the importance of electronic information services, the role of the IMPACT programme and its possibilities for market actors. The network of NAPs will be used as much as possible for the work of the other IMPACT action lines, e.g. organisation of workshops, analysis of national information markets, implementation of training projects. The NAPs will be encouraged to work in close synergy with other Commission networks, e.g. EICs, VRCs, BC-NET, UETPs (COMETT).

Some collaboration with be sought with projects (e.g. ESATT, Teleserve) which were launched under the COPERNICUS programme in order to help Central and Eastern Europe to develop an information infrastructure.

In the area of the ECHO services the close collaboration with other Commission departments which are active in this field will be continued. This includes the common stand at exhibitions together with EUR-OP and EUROSTAT and the collaboration with database producers (e.g. EUR-OP, DG XV, SG, DG XIII/D). A particular role will be played by ECHO in the framework of the pilot phase of the SIMAP project of DG XV (Système d'information sur les marchéspublics) which aims to improve public procurement information for SMEs. The importance of this project is also underlined in the Bangemann report.

For the further extension of the WWW server close collaboration will be sought with relevant DG XIII services in Brussels and DG XII which has launched the Cyberspace project, an initiative that could also make use of the WWW service.

In the area of training close collaboration is envisaged with the relevant Commission departments (e.g. DG V, Task Force Human Resources).


The network of national awareness partners implies a close collaboration with organisations in the Member States and the new E.U. countries. The awareness partners will have regular meetings with the Commission. The private sector of the information market will be informed about the ECHO databases which have reached market maturity and could be exploited commercially. ECHO will cooperate with some major European hosts in the framework of an information network. The collection of the input for the I'M Guide will continue to be co-ordinated by the EIIA. The addresses of the participants in awareness activities will be passed on with their consent to the commercial operators in the market place. The development of a World Wide Web on Internet will further improve the communication with relevant market actors.

The implementation of the training activities will take into consideration similar efforts of the private sector.


For all activities under this action line review mechanisms are built in right from the start of the projects. The network of NAPs foresees regular reporting of the results achieved. This includes qualitative and quantitative information from the various activities. The same applies for the action area "Improving access to EU information". In all training projects the evaluation aspect will play an important role. Some figures illustrate the results achieved since the start of the IMPACT 2 programme at the end of 1991.

In total about 500 awareness events (seminars, workshops, participation in exhibitions and conferences) were organised by the NAPs in 1994 (forecast based on the planning of October 1994). This is an increase of about 80% compared with 1993 and underlines that the network has become operational.

Nearly 300.000 copies of awareness material (brochures, leaflets, manuals, reports, videos, diskettes) were distributed in 1994 to interested people via the NAPs and the CST.

The ECHO host had about 20.000 registered users in more than 70 countries at the end of September 1994. This is an increase of more than 25% compared with the same month of 1993.

The introduction of online registration on ECHO in September 1994, together with its link to the Internet, has produced some amazing results. Instead of about 300 new clients per month nearly 900 clients registered in September alone. The use of ECHO grew from 6.100 hours in August 1994 to 8.000 hours in September 1994. The number of logons increased from about 32.000 per month to more than 40.000. It can be expected that ECHO will have close to 25.000 clients at the end of 1994 with about 10.000 connect hours per month. If this trend continues in 1995 the computer resources will have to be increased in order to cope with the global approach to be taken within the framework of the Information Society.


Activity areas                            Commitment         %    Planned           %    Estimated     %
                                          93 Budget in ECU        94 Budget in ECU       95 Budget in ECU

7.1. Creation and management of an        1,455,000         46    2,000,000         53   2,632,600    61

awareness network 7.2. Improving access to EU information 1,072,100 25
Support for users and providers 955,500 31 900,000 23
of information services Information exchange with the 309,500 10 600,000 16
market place 7.3. Training 420,000 13 300,000 8 620,300 14 TOTAL 3,140,000 100 3,800,000 100 4,325,000 100



The objective of this Action Line is to stimulate the establishment of a European competitive capacity in the supply of information, notably through support for key development projects in strategically important areas. So far, the areas of multimedia and geographical information are being tackled and in 1995 attention will be given to information for business and industry use as well as to improving access to information via networks.

Although the emerging technologies are providing the tools for more efficient exploitation, transformation, distribution and use of information, the inherent obstacles of market fragmentation and dispersed information sources, among others, are continuing to impede the growth of a European information supply industry. Furthermore, the Communication from the Commission "Europe's Way to the Information Society - An Action Plan" (COM (94) 347), emphasises the need for high-quality information resources (databases, image bases, etc.) to be made available for the emerging European information infrastructure. In particular, ways are to be sought to stimulate the creation of favourable conditions for information providers to adapt their skills and products to the changing environment.

The envisaged actions aim to stimulate co-operative ventures across national boundaries in order to share resources, expertise and development effort. This issue is particularly critical for the small and medium-sized enterprises, important actors in new areas of information services.

Furthermore, there is a need to overcome divergences in approach and other issues affecting the further development of the information market in certain fields, such as geographical information. Therefore, the formation of industry platforms and human networks will be encouraged in order to address those problems.

The mid-term review of the IMPACT programme at the end of 1993 concluded that the objectives and the four action lines had been correctly defined but that the budget was insufficient. The actions foreseen under Action Line 4 will help to prepare the ground for a follow-up programme (1996-2000) in particular through pilot projects that will form a backbone for a European information network.


Initiatives are designed to provide for continuity and innovation and focus on the improvement of the European capacity to produce, transform and distribute information content to the emerging information society.

New development projects will be selected and supported following the call for proposals of 15.9.1994 and will produce an advance set of pilot services that will prepare the ground for a European information network.

Support will be given to measures to improve interconnection and interoperability between information service providers with the objective of creating a European information network.

Existing development projects in Interactive Multimedia (IMM) and Geographical Information Services (GIS) will be monitored and action taken to exploit their results.

Support will continue to be given to the IMM and GIS information supply industries, through facilities granted to associations and awards made for new innovative work.

Support will continue for actions in the less favoured regions to stimulate participation in the European information market, notably through the application of the Community Structural Funds.

Encouragement will again be given to information service developers through the grant of awards to outstanding new information services and products.

Support for the activities under this action line will be provided through the TEXIS contract.


3.1 Support for the development of information services for business and industry

A call for declarations of intent was launched at the end of 1993 in order to gauge the level of industry interest and readiness to invest in a range of applications to improve European-wide access to information using the latest available technology. This call produced some 500 reactions which enabled the Commission to conclude that a substantial impact can be made on the market through support for a limited number of key transnational projects.

The call for proposals of 15.9.1994 focuses on information aimed directly at improving the competitiveness of the users in industry and business, following the orientation of about 65% of respondents to the 1993 call. It is also directly in line with the White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and Employment.

Information for use by business must be highly accurate, up to date and complete, covering an adequate geographical area. This will require the use of networks for acquiring, processing, coordinating and distributing information and development projects are expected to require investments ranging from 200 000 ECU to 2 MECU.

DG XXIII (Enterprise Policy, Distributive Trades, Tourism and Cooperatives) is associated with the dissemination of the call for proposals and will be consulted on the final selection of projects for support. DG XXIII has also agreed to examine ways in which members of the network of Euro Info Centres in the relevant Regions could encourage the Regional authorities to include information market development projects in the operational programmes for financing through the Community structural funds.

3.2 Interactive Multimedia Information

Following the 1992 call for proposals to support the development of interactive multimedia products and a definition phase for 56 projects, 22 projects have been carrying out an implementation phase scheduled to achieve their goals in late 1994 and early 1995.

In 1995, the actions will include:

3.3 Participation in a European information network

One of the recommendations of the Bangemann report deals with the interconnection and interoperability between service providers.

Support will be given to measures leading to an open network that will allow users from any access point to obtain information easily from any providers on the network without a prior contract with those providers and without knowing the individual database structures or relevant search languages. Initial action in 1994 has been to encourage a group of major European hosts (e.g. DIMDI, QUESTEL, ESA/IRS) to develop specifications for a backbone structure for such a European information network. The envisaged initiative will provide access to basic services and include facilities such as

The technical implementation of this cooperation will be based on standard protocols for networked information retrieval (e.g. Z39.50) allowing the add-on of further partners in the future. This protocol also supports multimedia applications.

The support given in 1995 to this implementation is envisaged to include, as an initial step, linking ECHO and ESA/IRS.

3.4 Geographic Information Systems

So far, cartography, and more generally speaking geographic information, is fundamentally national and extremely heterogeneous. The disadvantages of not having a common reservoir of geographic information are just beginning to be seen in terms of the problems encountered when pan-European projects and businesses are frustrated because of national and disciplinary differences in data collection, data storage and data formats.

First activities have been undertaken in 1994 to tackle these problems. In 1995 these actions will be followed up or continued as appropriate:

Given the strategic importance of Geographic Information more attention will be given to the creation of a European Geographic Information Infrastructure as part of an internal information market and as a basis of the emerging information society. In conformity with the declarations of the President of the Commission (Mr Delors' letter of 4 October 1994 to Mr Bernard Bosson, Ministre de l'‚quipement, des transports et du tourisme, Paris), a more vigorous political impetus should be given to developing geographical information. In particular, it is envisaged that DG XIII, under the authority of Mr Bangemann, and in close cooperation with EUROSTAT and the Joint Research Centre, should propose to coordinate all general political issues in the domain of geographical information. To this end the following measures will be undertaken: An additional aim of IMPACT actions in GIS is to stimulate the uptake of use of geographic information in business and industry to help increase their competitivity. Actions to further this objective will include:

3.5 Support actions for the Less Favoured Regions (LFRs)

In 1994, the network of National Focal Points in LFRs was combined with that of the National Awareness Partners (NAPs) in the remaining countries, providing 29 distributed IMPACT agencies throughout the EU and the signatory countries of the EEA.

In addition to the tasks common to all NAPs, those situated in the less favoured regions will be particularly involved in LFR-related awareness and training activities.

The Commission will pursue its efforts to promote information service developments in the Less Favoured Regions through relevant Community Structural Fund (CSF) activities.

In 1995, the following activities will be undertaken :

3.6 Extension of actions to the European Economic Area (EEA)

The Commission will give particular attention to the integration of the information activities in the EEA countries into those active in the EU. The NAPs will play a key role in this action, through information days, awareness and training activities.

The NAPs will also be required to participate closely in drawing up an action plan for the follow up of IMPACT that takes into account the requirements of both the less favoured regions and the countries of the EEA.

3.7 International cooperation

Under the COPERNICUS programme for scientific and technical support to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, a call was launched in 1994 that resulted in the funding of three projects in the IMPACT area, that is, for the development of information services. These projects will be monitored by the IMPACT team.

In addition, further actions for funding in the IMPACT area will be proposed for funding under Action 2 of the Fourth Framework Programme (International Cooperation), again mainly to support the development of the information services market in East and Central Europe.


Close links with other Community programmes and exploitation of their relevant results will provide external synergies to achieve complementarity and to avoid overlaps. In this respect, the programmes of the 4th Framework Programme, as well as those of DGs III, X, XV, XXIII and the various Community Structural Fund programmes are particularly relevant.


The industry platforms and the network of National Awareness Partners, as well as the ongoing interaction with these bodies and with other networks provide the IMPACT programme with valuable feedback on the effect of activities in the market. This interaction will be further strengthened through workshops and studies involving relevant actors in this field. This will provide for an exchange of views, raise awareness, share know-how and stimulate co-operation, in order better to refine ongoing actions and to define future actions.


The principal result of Action Line 4 at the conclusion of the four years of IMPACT 2 will be the establishment of an improved competitive capacity for the production, transformation, supply and use of advanced information services. Skills have been consolidated, resources have been exploited, initiatives have been taken in the face of high market risks and industry interest has been awakened to the potential for further market developments.

The individual projects supported under Action Line 4 will be monitored and, at mid-term and at their end, will be reviewed by independent external evaluators in order to assess their degree of success and guide both the project developers and subsequent Commission policy. The performance of these projects will in particular be valuable in designing further measures of industry and market support in the envisaged follow-up programme. Specifically, these projects are:


Activity Areas          Commitment     %     Commitment    %    Commitment     %     Planned    %      Estimated   %
                        91 Budget            92 Budget          93 Budget            94 Budget         95 Budget
                        in ECU               in ECU             in ECU               in ECU            in ECU
7.1 Strategic Projects  300,811        17    3,812,33      84   4,475,000     88     4,950,000  84     5,385,000   80

7.2  Support to LFRs    236,352        13      540,000     12     500,000     10       860,000  14     1,000,000   20

7.3  IMPACT 1 follow-up 1,246,218      70     165,000       4     120,000      2       100,000    2     --------    

TOTAL                   1,783,381     100   4,517,334     100   5,095,000    100     5,910,000  100    6,385,000  100 

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